Characteristics of Longhorns

 

Desirable

Objectionable

Undesirable

Functional Efficiency

Fertility

Early maturity & longevity

Cows: Feminine, regular & early calving

Bulls: Masculine, virile, high libido

Abnormal reproductive organs

 

Sheath

 

Retracted prepuce, small orifice, flat small-sized navel flap

 

Long, pendulous sheath, non-retractable prepuce.  Excessive navel flap both male & female

Udder & Teats

Well attached, balanced

Teats too large for a calf to nurse at birth; meaty, broken, loosely attached

Hard, firm, meaty udder, unable to produce enough milk for calf

Disposition

Mild, tractable

Nervous

 

Size

Adequate for age

Small for age, extremely over-sized

 

Hair    (dependent on environment)

Short, straight, slick coat

Long, curly hair

 

Hide

Vascular, mellow & pliable navel flap

Tight, excessive skin fold, excessive sheath or navel flap

Extra large sheath or navel flap

Legs & Feet

Squarely set, sound feet & joints

Very short legs, sickle hocks & "post" legs. Mule-footed - extra close, weak hocks

 

Conformation

General Type or Form

Good length with moderate depth & thickness. Top of hips higher than top of shoulders. Elliptical shaped body for heat adaption. Sound dense bones. Strong legs with free movement; Bulls slightly thicker & heavier muscled than cows. Exhibiting crest development on neck.

 

Any evidence of hump directly over shoulder region

Head

Showing masculinity & femininity ac-cording to sex;

moderate width with pronounced length from poll to muzzle. Straight profile. Some evidence of throat flap.

Nose extremely "pinched-in" above nostrils. Short, blocky head. Convex fore-head. "Roman Nose". Pendulous dewlap.

 

Ears

Medium to small, short round ears

Longer, droopy ears

Extremely large, droopy ears

Muzzle

Mealy mouthed, pigmented

Non-pigmented

Wry nose, over- shot or undershot jaw

Neck

Trim in cow. Muscular in bull.

Ewe neck, very long or very short

 

Shoulders

Free moving, smooth and well-muscled

Open on top, sharply dropping down behind

shoulders

 

Brisket

Trim & free from excessive fleshiness

Excessive fat, downward sloping & excessive dewlap

 

Heart Girth

Elliptical & full

Pinched girth

 

Back

Strong top-line with slope upward from shoulders to hook bones

Extreme swayback

 

Loin

Reasonably broad & full

Extremely narrow & low

 

Ribs

Moderately well sprung, elliptical

Slab sided

 

Hooks

Broad, reasonably prominent &

sloping downward toward pin bones

Narrowness in hooks

 

Rump

Long, moderately sloping from

hooks to pins

Short, narrow & extremely droopy

 

Tail

Long with full switch

Very short tail

Wry tail

Hindquarters

Reasonably broad & muscular, moderately wide at pins

Extremely narrow

Double muscling

Color

Coat

"Their colors were more varied than those of the rainbow. There were brindles; blues, mulberry blue, ring-streaked blue, speckled blue; grullas - so named because they had the hue of the sandhill crane, also called mouse-colored, or slate duns, washed-out & Jersey creams - all hues of "yellow", browns with bay points; blacks, solid & splotched with white, brown & red; whites both clearly bright & dirty speckled; many sabinas, red-& white peppered; reds of all shades except the dark richness characteristic of Hereford, pale reds being very common; paints of many combinations. The line along the back was common, as in the mustang breed. Coarse brown hairs around the ears were characteristic. The shadings & combinations of colors were so various that no two were alike." J. Frank Dobie.

Horns

 

Superior

Desirable

Acceptable

Undesirable

Tip-to-Tip Measurement

Cows: Slender, wide twisted out-ward; more than 70” on mature cows

Bulls: Horns with longitudinal length & a for-ward & upward sweep. More than 70” at maturity.

Cows: Slender, wide twisted out-ward; more than 60” on mature cows

Bulls: Horns with longitudinal length & a for-ward & upward sweep. More than 60” at maturity.

Cows: Slender, wide twisted out-ward; more than 50” on mature cows

Bulls: Horns with longitudinal length & a for-ward & upward sweep. More than 50” at maturity.

Cows: Broad-based horns; horns that sharply curve up-ward. Less than 40” at maturity.

Bulls: Horns that curve sharply upward. Less than 40” at maturity.

Total Horn Measurement

Cows: Slender, wide twisted out-ward; more than 80” on mature cows

Bulls: Horns with longitudinal length & a for-ward & upward sweep. More than 80” at maturity.

Cows: Slender, wide twisted out-ward; more than 70” on mature cows

Bulls: Horns with longitudinal length & a for-ward & upward sweep. More than 70” at maturity.

Cows: Slender, wide twisted out-ward; more than 60” on mature cows

Bulls: Horns with longitudinal length & a for-ward & upward sweep. More than 60” at maturity.

Cows: Broad-based horns; horns that sharply curve up-ward. Less than 50” at maturity.

Bulls: Horns that curve sharply upward. Less than 50” at maturity.